An orthodontist is a dentist who specializes in diagnosing and treating malocclusions, which are mis-alignments of the teeth, jaws or both of them. After graduating dental school, an orthodontist completes 2-3 years of full-time additional training under the direct control of experienced orthodontists. In condition they pass the training, they receive a specialty certificate in orthodontics. Within many orthodontic training programs, students can also get a master's degree as follows: Master of Science - MS; Master of Dental Science - MDS, Master of Science in Dentistry - MSD, Master of Medical Science - MMSc, Master of Public Policy - MPP or Master of Public Health – MPH, plus a specialty certificate.
The orthodontist will align the teeth with esteem to the surrounding soft tissues, with or without movement of the underlying bones (which can be moved either through orthopedic or orthognathic movements). Orthopedic movement of the jaws is achieving through growth modification of one or both jaws of growing children only. A number of appliances are utilized for this reason, comprising functional appliances, headgear, facemasks and elastics. Orthopedic appliances can influence the development of an adolescent's profile and give an enhanced aesthetic and functional result.
Orthognathic movement of the jaws is achieved by surgery. This moving of the jaw(s) is performed on patients who have completed their growth. Such surgical treatment is performed by malofacial surgeons who work closely with the orthodontic stuff.
One of the most common situations leading to orthodontic treatment is crowding of the teeth. In this situation, there is insufficient space for the normal complement of adult teeth, which can sometimes result in teeth being taken out. Crowding of teeth is recognised as a problem that stems partially from a modern western way of life. We do not know for sure whether it is because of the consistency of western diets; a result of mouthbreathing or the result of an early loss of deciduous (milk, baby) teeth as a result of decay. It is also likely that Homo sapiens have evolved smaller jaws without a reduction in the number of teeth they will house happening at the same time. Orthodontics is not always for aesthetic purposes. Braces may be fitted in the case of an overbite to help avoid the occurrence of teeth being knocked out in an accident, for instance, hockey or skating.
A lot has been made in the media of links between tooth extraction and temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction (problems, including clicking and jamming, of the jaw joint). No research has shown a definitive connection between orthodontic treatment, extraction of teeth and jaw joint problems. Most temporo-mandibular joint problems are multifactorial on basis (that is having a number of possible etiologic agents).